29.03.1923 - 31.12.1994
 
 
 
 
 
ns[kks! os xjhch ls vkxs c<+sA yacs le; rd eqf'dyksa dk lkeuk fd;kA muds eu esa Hk; cuk jgrk gS fd dgha iqjkus fnu ykSVdj u vk tk,aA blfy, os —i.krk dk O;ogkj djrs gSaA* ckcwth ds ,d vis{kk—r laiUu fe= ds ckjs esa esjs iwNus ij ckcwth dh ;g fVIi.kh FkhA

^ysfdu vkius Hkh rks cpiu ls vc rd ?kksj eqlhcrsa >syhaA vki datwl D;ksa ugha cusA* eSaus ckr vkxs c<+kbZA

^esjs HkkX; esa tks fy[kk gS] og eq>s fey jgk gSA esjs ekè;e ls vxj fdlh dks dqN feyrk gS rks ;g mldk HkkX; gSA eq>s vxj dHkh t:jr vku iM+h rks fQj gkFk&iSj ekjsaxsA Mj fdl ckr dkA* ;g ckcwth dk mÙkj FkkA

blds vkxs mUgksaus eq>s le>k;k fd lQyrk çkIr O;fä lc ,d tSls ugha gksrsA xqjcr vkSj eqlhcrksa dk lkeuk rks cgqrksa us fd;k gksxk] ysfdu muesa ls cgqr ,sls gksrs gSa tks vrhr dks ;kn djds ?kcjkrs gSa vkSj gkFk [khapdj pyrs gSaA ysfdu dqN ,sls Hkh gksrs gSa tks la?k"kksZa ls thou&'kfä xzg.k djrs gSaA vkRefoÜokl ikrs gSaA dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd ckcwth bl nwljh Js.kh ds gh O;fä FksA cpiu vkSj ckn ds la?k"kksZa dk ftØ mUgksaus viuh vkRedFkk ^èkwi&Nk¡g ds fnu* esa fd;k gS] ysfdu og Hkh fuLlax gksdjA u dksbZ vfrjaftr c[kku vkSj u çn'kZu dj lgkuqHkwfr cVksjus dh dksf'k'kA

ek;kjke lqjtu us thou esa çkIr lQyrkvksa ij dHkh vuko';d vfHkeku ugha fd;k rFkk lekt o HkkX; dks gh os bldk Js; nsrs jgsA vlQyrkvksa dks Hkh mUgksaus HkkX;&nsork dk çlkn gh ekukA mUgksaus tks dqN Hkh vftZr fd;k] mls ck¡Vus esa mUgsa larks"k feyrk FkkA ;g flyflyk 1945 ls gh 'kq: gks x;k Fkk] tc mUgksaus ch-d‚e- dh mikfèk gkfly dj ukSdjh 'kq: dj nh FkhA ukxiqj] tcyiqj] Hkksiky ;k jk;iqj& ckcwth tgk¡ Hkh jgs] gekjk ?kj ges'kk fe=ksa] ifjfprksa o lacafèk;ksa dk vkf'k;kuk cuk jgkA dksbZ çsl esa çf'k{k.k ysus vk jgk gSA dksbZ 'kgj esa jgdj i<+kbZ iwjh djuk pkgrk gSA fdlh dU;k dk fookg ugha gks jgk gS lks HkS;kth ;k ckcwth ds laidksZa ls gks tk,xhA dksbZ muds csVs dk fe= gS rks dksbZ fe= ds fe= dk iq=A fdlh dks csgrj fpfdRlk dh t:jr gSA vkSj ;g Hkh fd xeÊ dh Nqêh ds ckn dksbZ cPpk vius ?kj okfil ykSV jgk gSA ;gka mlds leo;Ld cPps jg jgs gSa rks r; dj fy;k& vPNk rqe Hkh ;gha jgksA ge rqEgkjs ckcwth ls ckr dj ysrs gSaA ,slh mnkjrk] ,slh fu'Nyrk vkSj ,slh oRlyrkA 'kk;n blh dks ns[kdj FkksM+h nsj ds fy, ?kj ièkkjh lqçfl) vfHkus=h nhuk ikBd us dgk& eSa Hkh vkidks vc ek;kjke ugha] ckcwth gh dgwaxhA 'kk;n blhfy, 1986 esa eqacbZ esa jh<+ dh gìh dk v‚ijs'ku gqvk rks M‚- ,-ch- ckoMsdj+ us fMLpktZ djrs oä fcy ekaxus ij ysVj gSM ij ^fon~ d‚EIyhesaV~l* fy[kdj ns fn;kA brus cM+s M‚DVjA os Hkh ifgyh ckj feys vius bl ejht dks rhljs fnu ls ckcwth dk lacksèku nsus yxsA

;g ckcwth dk leqæ tSlk fo'kky ân; gh Fkk ftlesa lcds fy, txg Fkh vkSj vius ijk, tSlh dksbZ Hkkouk ugha FkhA çsl esa igys rks lc mUgsa HkS¸;k th dgdj gh lacksfèkr djrs Fks] ysfdu tc eSaus Hkh dke djuk çkjaHk fd;k rks os èkhjs&èkhjs lcds fy, ckcwth cu x,A muds mnkÙk eu dh NksVh lh >yd ,d çlax ls feyrh gSA 1970 esa ';kekpj.k 'kqDy eq[;ea=h FksA tcyiqj esa Nk=ksa us muds çokl ij vkus ij mxz çn'kZu fd;kA ykBh pktZ esa cgqr ls Nk= ?kk;y gq, ftuesa 'kjn ;kno] jkesÜoj uh[kjk vkfn 'kkfey FksA uh[kjk foÜofo|ky; Nk=la?k ds vè;{k FksA ckcwth dqyifr çHkqn;ky vfXgks=h ds ikl x,A vuqjksèk fd;k fd ?kk;y cPpksa dks ns[kus vkidks vLirky pyuk pkfg,A vkÜoLr fd;k fd eSa lkFk esa gwa] dksbZ xM+cM+h ugha gksxhA dqyifr us mudh ckr ekuh vkSj bl rjg fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk vkØks'k BaMk iM+kA blds ckn ckcwth us Nk=ksa dks Hkksiky eq[;ea=h ls feyus HkstkA muds uke ,d O;fäxr i= Hkh fy[kkA 'kqDy th us Nk=ksa dh ckrsa lquh vkSj larks"ktud lekèkku fd;kA vkanksyu lekIr gks x;kA 'kjn ;kno vkSj jkesÜoj uh[kjk nksuksa jktuhfr esa cgqr Åij rd igqaps ysfdu mudh Le`fr;ksa esa ckcwth vkt Hkh thfor gSaA

,d NksVk ysfdu euksjatd okd;k jk;iqj esa ns[kus feykA ckcwth vLoLFk Fks vkSj vLirky esa FksA jktukjk;.k feJ ;kus ge yksxksa ds ^nk* ls fdlh ckr ij os csgn ukjkt gq,A vLirky esa nk dks cqykdj dgk fd dksbZ nwljh txg <wa< yksA nk lqudj pqipki pys vk,A mUgsa vxys fnu fQj ryc fd;k x;kA ^lquk gS cgw chekj gSA mlds Bhd gksrs rd rqe dke dj ldrs gksA* nk eqLdqjkrs gq, okfil vk,A nk dh iRuh ;kus eerk HkkHkh lpeqp vLirky esa HkrÊ FkhaA ;g tkudkjh ikdj ckcwth dk xqLlk mrj x;k vkSj ikfjokfjd fpark us mldk LFkku ys fy;kA blh rjg ,d ckj dqN yksx f'kdk;r ysdj igqaps& ^vkids ;gka nhipan dke djrk gS] mlus gekjh yM+dh dks NsM+k gSA* ckcwth us mudks vkÜoLr fd;k fd ,slk nqckjk ugha gksxkA nhipan ds cM+s HkkbZ QksjeSu nqyhflag dks cqyk;k& * yM+dk cM+k gks x;k gSA blds fy, tYnh ls yM+dh <wa<ks vkSj 'kknh djok nksA* vius vklikl ds yksxksa dh bl rjg dh tks fQØ mUgksaus dh] og cstksM+ gh dgh tk,xhA

tc mUgksaus jk;iqj ls v[kckj fudkyus dk bjknk fd;k rks muds lkFk dke djus okyksa esa ,sls pkyhl yksx Fks tks fcuk fdlh xkjaVh ds ,d furkar vifjfpr LFkku esa vkdj dke djus ds fy, LosPNk ls lkeus vk x,A bu lcdk ;gh dguk Fkk fd vki lq[k&nq%[k esa tSlk Hkh j[ksaxs ge jgsaxsA dkykarj esa buesa ls dqN yksx ifjfLFkfro'k vU;= t:j x,] ysfdu vfèkdrj fjVk;jesaV dh mez rd vkSj dqN rks vius vafre le; rd ckcwth ds lkFk tqM+s jgsA ^ns'kcUèkq* dh uhao ds iRFkj ;gh yksx FksA

eSa Lo;a dks lkSHkkX;'kkyh ekurk gwa fd ckcwth ds :i esa ,sls firk o ekxZn'kZd feys tks vçfre ekuoh; laosnukvksa ls Hkjiwj Fks rFkk ftUgksaus dHkh xjhc&vehj] Åap&uhp] NqvkNwr ;k LoèkeZ&foèkeZ dh èkkj.kk esa foÜokl ugha j[kkA eSa vU;= fy[k pqdk gwa fd esjs vkReh; fe= tekyqíhu us csVh dk fookg r; fd;k rks muds LoxZoklh ekrk&firk ds fjä LFkku ij ckcwth ds uke ls fuea=.k i= tkjh gqvkA dqy feykdj ;g ckcwth dh gh nsu gS fd ekuoh; lacaèkksa ds ikyu esa gekjk ifjokj ladh.kZrk vkSj iwokZxzgksa ls dkQh gn rd cpk jgk gSA