29.03.1923 - 31.12.1994
 
 
 
 
 
i=dkfjrk esa ek;kjke lqjtu ds vonku ls eksVs rkSj ij yksx ifjfpr gSa] ;|fi bl rLohj esa jax Hkjs tkuk vHkh ckdh gSA fdarq ckcwth ds —frRo dk ,d fnypLi igyw vHkh rd yxHkx vutkuk gSA ;g rF; muds vusd fe=ksa dks 'kk;n ekywe ugha Fkk fd os ,d vPNs xhrdkj Hkh FksA esjs ikl ckcwth dh tks Mk;fj;ka gSa] muls irk pyrk gS fd 1939 ds vklikl mUgksaus xhr fy[kuk çkjaHk fd;k FkkA ;g xhr ;k=k dksbZ iPphl o"kZ rd pyrh jghA mudh rhljh vkSj vkf[kjh dfork Mk;jh esa 1952 ls 62 ds chp fy[ks ,d xhr gSa vkSj mlds ckn flQZ dksjs iUus gSaA vafre xhr dh iafä;ka dqN bl çdkj gSa
 
^vkt vdsys pyks ikao js! os fnu chr x,
lq[k&lqgkx ds fnu FkksM+s Fks tc ckjkr lth
gj iM+ko ij usg fugksjs] ;'k lkSxkr caVh*--- vkfn
 
eSa tgka rd le> ik;k gwa 1962 ds var esa tc os tcyiqj ubZ nqfu;k ls i`Fkd gq,] mlds ckn yacs le; rd mUgsa tks Hkh"k.k la?k"kZ >syuk iM+s] mlesa os vius dfo dks gkf'k, ij Mkydj Hkwy x,A eSa tc&rc ,d ikBd dh –f"V ls bu xhrksa dks ns[krk gwa rks yxrk gS vxj ckcwth fujarj fy[krs jgrs rks ledkyhu ifj–'; ij ,d leFkZ xhrdkj ds :i esa viuh vyx ifgpku cuk ldrs FksA

;wa eq>s vDlj ;g lkspdj gSjkuh gksrh gS fd ckcwth us ,d lkfgfR;d ds :i esa xhr foèkk dks D;ksa pqukA D;k 'kk;n blfy, fd muds fo|kFkÊ thou esa leFkZ xhrdkjksa dh ,d iwjh ih<+h –'; ij ekStwn Fkh! vkSj fdlh Hkh u, jpukdkj ij mudk çHkko u iMu+k vlaHko FkkA ckcwth ds ledkyhuksa esa Hkokuhçlkn feJ] eqfäcksèk o èkeZohj Hkkjrh vkfn Fks ftUgksaus xhr ls gh viuh lkfgR; ;k=k çkjaHk dh FkhA ,sls esa ek;kjke lqjtu uked r#.k Hkh xhr fy[ks rks vpjt ugha gksuk pkfg,] ysfdu esjh gSjkuh ,d rks bl dkj.k ls gS fd tc os vU; fe=ksa dh Hkkafr ubZ dfork dh vksj c<+ ldrs Fks] mUgksaus ,slk ugha fd;kA nwljs] os ftl jpuk eaMy ds lnL; Fks] mlesa muds lfgr yxHkx lHkh lkfgR; dks ,d egÙkj mís'; dk ekè;e ekuus okys FksA os lc 'kkÜor lkfgR;] jpuk dh Lok;Ùkrk tSlh èkkj.kkvksa ls nwj Fks rFkk dfork muds fy, euksjatu dk 'kxy ugha FkhA vkSj fQj] ckcwth dfork ds ctk; x| lkfgR; gh çeq[k :i ls i<u+k ilan djrs FksA

tks Hkh gks ckcwth dh xhr iafä;ka jg&jgdj esjs vksBksa ij vk tkrh gSaA mudk ,d xhr gS& ^iy&çfriy xyrh dk;k dks thus dk foÜokl pkfg,A* bls M‚- fprjatu dj us dqN vU; xhrksa ds lkFk csgn [kwclwjr <ax ls Lojc) fd;k gSA lquks rks jkse&jkse >u>uk mBrk gSA euq"; thou dh lkFkZdrk dk iqjtksj 'kCnksa esa çfriknu bl dfork esa gSA ,slh gh mudh ,d vU; dfork gS& ^tks thou ls gkj x;k gks mlesa çk.k txkvks lkFkhA* blh dfork ls eSaus viuh ys[kekyk dk 'kh"kZd mBk;k gSA eq>s fo'ks"k rkSj ij mudk ,d xhr ilan gS tks dqN&dqN çsexhr lk gS& ^rqEgsa fy[kwa D;k i=] ân; dh Hkk"kk i<+ yksA* blesa vkxs pydj ,d iafä vkrh gS&^eSa ghjs lh ân; ef.k] rqe eu&eqanjh esa tM+ yksA* vQlksl fd eq>s flQZ ;=&r= iafä;ka gh è;ku vkrh gSaA
 
1961&62 esa ckcwth us ,d lqnh?kZ dfork fy[khA bls mUgksaus çdf'kr Hkh fd;k& ^vi;'k* ds Nn~euke lsA bl ekfeZd dfork ds dqN caèk çLrqr gSa&
^;g rks çhfr rqEgkjh gh Fkh tSlk pkgk eq>s cuk;k
;g Hkh jhfr rqEgkjh gh gS dHkh galk;k dHkh #yk;k---*
^rqe [kq'k rks fuf'kpj jko.k Hkh lksus dh yadk dk Lokeh
rqe uk[kq'k rks n'kjFk uanu gq, jktiFk ls ouxkeh*
^rqeus lkspk l`f"V rqEgkjh ek;k dh etcwj ugha vc
bZ";k tc foosd ij gkoh dksbZ fu.kZ; Øwj ugha rc*
vafre iafä;ka gSa&
^blfy, rqe vius Hksn u nsuk tx rks ek;k dk foÜoklh eSa vius dkaèks vks<+waxk Nyuke; funkZs"k mnklhA* 
 
eSaus ftruk le>k ;g xhr ekuoh; fj'rksa dh tfVy cukoV dks [kksydj lkeus j[k nsrk gSA ;g rks esjh jk; gqbZA ckcwth dks Lo;a viuk tks xhr fç; Fkk] mldh 'kq#vkr bl rjg ls gksrh gS& ^ckaèkks jh lf[k! usgnku dh lhek esjh I;kl lnk vucq>h jgsxhA* tc dHkh QqlZr ds {k.kksa esa ge ckcwth ds lkFk cSBrs vkSj dqN lqukus dh Qjekb'k djrs rks vDlj ckcwth ;gh xhr BsB dfo lEesyuh vankt esa lqukrsA vxj dqN vkSj lqukus dh ekax gksrh rks os ^vankat* fQYe esa eqds'k dk xk;k xhr& ^>we&>we ds ukpks vkt vkt fdlh dh gkj gqbZ gS] vkt fdlh dh thr* gh lqukrs ;k fQj dqanuyky lgxy dk ^,d caxyk cus U;kjkA*

ckcwth us vius xhrksa ds çdk'ku esa dHkh #fp ugha yhA eSaus gh chp&chp esa muls fcuk iwNs Mk;jh ls dfork,a fudkydj nhikoyh fo'ks"kkad tSls voljksa ij Nki nhaA os dfo lEesyuksa o xksf"B;ksa esa Jksrk ds :i esa rks vDlj tkrs Fks] ysfdu [kqn dk dfo :i esa ifjp; dHkh ugha fn;kA blesa ,d viokn gqvkA 22 tuojh 1969 dks esjs fookg dh laè;k ij ukxiqj esaA xksèkwfy osyk esa ckjkr Lokxr dh vkSipkfjdrkvksa ds ckn ckcwth lfgr lkjs ys[kd&ckjkrh pys x, fonHkZ fganh lkfgR; lEesyu ds ^eksj Hkou* esaA ogka lEesyu dh vksj ls bu lcds lEeku esa dkO; xks"Bh j[kh xbZ FkhA eè;çns'k vkSj fonHkZ ls vk, brus lkjs ys[kdksa ds tqVus dk ;g vn~Hkqr volj FkkA ckcwth ds dfo gksus dk jgL; tkuus okys fdlh fe= us jkt [kksy fn;k rks mUgsa dfork lqukuk gh iM+hA ogh& ^ckaèkks jh lf[k! usgnku dh lhekA* vxys fnu LFkkuh; lekpkj esa [kcj Nih rks lcus vkuan fy;kA

ckcwth us ,d dfork eq> ij Hkh fy[khA eSa Xokfy;j esa FkkA 14 uoacj ;kus cky fnolA cqvkth ik¡p ekg vLirky esa fcrkdj ?kj ykSV jgh FkhaA mlh fnu edku ekfyd ds csVs dk tUefnu FkkA vuqie HkS;k vkSj eSa mlesa pys x,A cqvkth ?kj vkbZa rks ge unkjn FksA QwQkth vkSj ckcwth nksuksa cgqr fcxM+sA ckcwth us eq>s xqLls esa ,d pk¡Vk Hkh tM+ fn;kA os mlds ckn Hkksiky jokuk gks x,A jkLrs esa dfork fy[kh vkSj Hkksiky igq¡prs lkFk vxys fnu eq>s iksLV dj nhA ifgyh iafä gS&^fny ds VqdM+s] ije ykM+ys cgqr nq%[kh tks rqedks ekjkA* blds vkxs blesa vkxs cky fnol dk ftØ gS fd pkpk usg: ds tUefnu ij ,slk ugha djuk FkkA viuh ;k=kvksa ds vdsysiu esa fdlh 'kke eqacbZ dh pkSikVh ij cSBs&cSBs mUgksaus lkjs ifjokj ds fy, ,d xhr jpk&^lc viuksa ls nwj ;gk¡ eSa 'kwU; xxu esa ns[kk djrkA* blesa mUgksaus  vius ekrk&firk] iRuh vkSj pkjksa cPpksa ¼1956½ dks ,d&,d in lefiZr fd;kA