29.03.1923 - 31.12.1994
 
 
 
 
 
eq>s ckcwth ds lkFk yach&yach ;k=k,a djus ds vusd volj feysA mUgsa ,d vPNh iqLrd esa ftruk vkuan vkrk Fkk] eu dh ekSt esa dh xbZ ,d vPNh ;k=k ls Hkh os mrus gh mRQqYy gksrs FksA mUgsa vius cpiu ls ysdj r#.kkbZ rd i<+kbZ tkjh j[kus ds fy, ;gka&ogka HkVduk iM+k FkkA ;g foo'krk gh ;fn vkxs pydj fç; O;lu esa ifjofrZr gks xbZ rks D;k vk'p;Z! tks dksbZ Hkh ;k=k ij muds lkFk gks rks] mlds fy, ;g ges'kk ,d vuwBk volj gksrk FkkA nSuafnu thou dh vkikèkkih vkSj vuFkd rdyhQksa ls ckcwth fuf'pr :i ls Fkd tkrs FksA ;k=k,a mUgsa vius vkidks lgstus] vius LoHkko esa ykSVus vkSj vkxs ds fy, 'kfä lafpr djus dk volj nsrh FkhaA mUgsa v[kckjh dke ds flyflys esa vDlj egkuxjksa ds nkSjs djuk iM+rs FksA bl ,dkdhiu dk mi;ksx os T;knkrj iqLrdsa i<+us esa djrs FksA ysfdu os tc ge yksxksa ds ;k fe= eaMyh ds lkFk fudyrs Fks rks ekuksa muds O;fäRo dk :ikarj.k gks tkrk FkkA

;k=k pkgs lM+d ekxZ ls gks jgh gks ;k jsy ekxZ lsA mUgsa ;gka ls ogka rd dk jkLrk T;ksa daBLFk gksrk FkkA dgk¡ vPNh pk; feyrh gS] dgk¡ xqykc tkequ vkSj dgk vkyw cksaMs& mUgsa lc irk FkkA vxj Vªsu ls tk jgs gksa rks ,slk dksbZ LVs'ku vkus ij os [kqn mrjdj ge yksxksa ds fy, O;atu ykus pys tkrs FksA fQj Hkys gh fMCcs rd okfil vkrs&vkrs Vªsu D;ksa u py iM+h gksA lM+d ekxZ ls tkus ij ;g [krjk ugha FkkA ,d ckj dkj }kjk iwjs ifjokj ds lkFk Hkksiky ls C;koj&vtesj&fpÙkkSM+ gksrs gq, ukFk}kjk tk jgs FksA jkr dks C;koj dh ,d èkeZ'kkyk esa #dsA lqcg pys rks mUgksaus crk;k fd vkxs fljokM+ uked xkao esa cgqr vPNs ijkaBs curs gSaA xkao vk;kA ijkaBs okys Hkkstuky; esa igqapsA 'kq) ?kh ugha Fkk rks eq>s cLrh esa HkstkA ek= 3 #i, dk ,d lsj 'kq) ?kh ysdj eSa vk;k rc Fkky ds vkdkj ds ijkaBs flds vkSj lcus vkuan mBk;kA tcyiqj&neksg ds chp dVaxh ds jlxqYys] fcykliqj&dVuh ds chp [kksMjh o [kksaxljk dh pk; vkSj cM+s] eaMyk ds ikl fcfN;k esa [kksos dh tysch vkSj f'kdkjk esa lqcg ds uk'rs dk Lokn lcls ifgys ckcwth ds lkFk gh eSaus fy;kA

tc 1959 esa ubZ fnYyh ds çxfr eSnku ¼vc½ ifgys&igy foÜo O;kikj esyk dk vk;kstu gqvk rks ckcwth ge lcdks ogka ys x,A ubZ fnYyh LVs'ku ds lkeus ysMh gkfMZax ljk; esa BgjsA Qjojh dh dM+dM+krh BaM esa ugkus ds fy, xje ikuh [kjhnuk iM+rk FkkA jkst 'kke dks esyk [kqyrs lkFk ge ogka igqap tkrs FksA lksfo;r la?k] vesfjdk] fczVsu ds iaMkyksa ds lkeus yach&yach drkjsa yxrh FkhaA fpdus eksVs dkxt ij jaxhu Nis czks'kj feyrs FksA muls dkxt o L;kgh nksuksa dh lqxaèk mBrh FkhA lksfo;r iaMky esa Liqrfud dk e‚My Hkh FkkA ;g 'kS{kf.kd ;k=k gh Fkh ftlesa f'k{kd ds :i esa ckcwth lkFk FksA mlh le; v'kksdk gksVy u;k&u;k cuk FkkA ckcwth gesa ogka ysdj Hkh x, vkSj pk.kD;iqjh Hkh ?kqekbZA laln Hkou] jk"Vªifr Hkou] rhu ewfrZ o jkt?kkV rks ns[ks gh ns[ksA blds ifgys 1957 esa nsgjknwu ls ykSVrs gq, ge ifgyh ckj fnYyh esa #ds FksA ,d jkr nfj;kxat esa eksrhegy esa fcrkbZ FkhA ogh ftldk cVj elkyk fpdu vkt foÜoçfl) gSA rc ykyfdyk] dqrqcehukj ns[ks vkSj ifgyh ckj ijkaBkokyh xyh ds ijkaBs p[ksA ml le; ;g ge e-ç- okyksa ds fy, ,d nqyZHk o u;k O;atu FkkA

Vªsu ls ;k=k lkFk djus esa dqNsd etsnkj çlax ?kfVr gq,A mTtSu ls Vszu pyh rks jkr dk le; ysfdu fMCcs esa jkS'kuh unkjnA ckcwth us psu [khaphA xkMZ vk;kA ifgys ykbV lqèkkjks] fQj xkM+h vkxs c<+kvksA ;kf=;ksa dh tku&eky dk loky gSA xkMZ us fourh dh& jryke taD'ku vkus nhft,A [kcj Hkstrk gwaA ykbZV lqèkj tk,xhA rc rd jsyos iqfyl ds nks flikgh fMCcs esa rSukr dj nsrs gSaA bl ij ckr cuhA ,d ckj ge eFkqjk taD'ku ij mrjsA fVfdV eFkqjk dSaV ;kus ,d LVs'ku ckn dk FkkA fVfdV pSdj us lkspk ifjokj ds lkFk dksbZ rhFkZ;k=h gSA blls jde ,saBh tk,A rqEgkjk fVfdV nwljs LVs'ku dk gSA ;gka dSls mrjsA tqekZuk yxsxkA ckcwth us dqrZs dh ckagsa eksM+haA pyks LVs'ku ekLVj ds iklA ogha tqekZuk iVkÅaxkA rhFkZ;k=h le>dj Bxuk pkgrs gksA ltx ukxfjd ek;kjke lqjtu us ckdk;nk f'kdk;r iqfLrdk esa f'kdk;r ntZ dhA ckn esa [kcj vkbZ ml fVfdV pSdj ij vko';d dkjZokbZ foHkkx us dhA ,sls dksbZ ,d ntZu Hkj fdLls gksaxsA

,slh gh fdlh ;k=k esa nkSyrjke flaèkh uked ,d xkMZ ls mudh fe=rk gks xbZA b"V n'kZu ds fy, nknk&nknh ds lkFk eSaus gh vusd ckj ukFk}kjk rd dh ;k=k dh rks ckcwth rks vkSj T;knk tkrs gksaxsA nkSyrjketh 'kk;n ukFk}kjk ds ikl mn;iqj&ekoth taD'ku&vkcw jksM ds iFk ij pyrs FksA mudk ?kj vkcw jksM esa FkkA os foHkktu ds ckn ikfdLrku ls vk, FksA ckcwth dks vPNh vaxzsth esa vDlj i= fy[kk djrs FksA esjs fookg ij mUgsa dkMZ x;kA os ugha vk ik,] ysfdu vk'khokZn dk i= vk;kA bl fe=rk esa ckcwth ,d ckj vkcw jksM x,A nkSyrjketh ds ?kj #dsA ,d le; dk Hkkstu djds ;k=k ds vxys iM+ko dh vksj c<+sA

,d ckj tcyiqj ls gesa ysdj os uSuhrky ds fy, fudysA neksg&dqaMyiqj gksdj Nrjiqj igqaprs rd 'kke gks xbZA og cqansy[kaM esa nL;q lezkV nsohflag ds ckjs esa çpfyr nardFkkvksa dk nkSj FkkA lkjs ifjokj ds lkFk jkr dks ;k=k djuk mfpr ugha FkkA Nrjiqj esa rc dksbZ y‚t Hkh ugha FkkA ckcwth us dkj dk #[k iqfyl Fkkus dh vksj fd;kA Fkkusnkj ls ckr dh vkSj jkr dks njh fcNkdj xeÊ ds fnuksa esa geus Fkkus esa yxs isM+ksa dh Nk;k esa jkf= foJke fd;kA ;g fdLlk 1962 dh ebZ dk gSA nwljk fdLlk 1959 dh nhokyh dh Nqfê;ksa dkA Xokfy;j ls f'koiqjh igqapsA ogka ls dksVk tkuk FkkA jkLrs esa dkyh flaèk unh iM+hA jkr dk le;A iqy ij ikuhA ek:fr jko Mªkboj ftUgsa ge ek#fr ekek dgrs Fks lkFk FksA ckcwth us dgk& ek#fr! rqe vkxs pyksA ikuh T;knk le> esa vk, rks crkukA okfil vk tk,axsA ek#fr ekek us isM+ dh Vguh dks NM+h cuk;kA iqy ij ikuh dk vuqeku djrs&djrs vkxs c<+sA ckcwth LVh;fjax ijA ikap fefuV esa xkM+h ikj gks xbZA eSa vkt rd r; ugha dj ik;k fd ;g lkgl Fkk ;k nqLlkglA

ckcwth ds lkFk ,d ;k=k çlax dk euksjatd ftØ ijlkbZth us lkIrkfgd fgUnqLrku esa Nih dgkuh esa fd;k FkkA nksuksa fe= cqansy[kaM esa dgha dk;ZØe ds fy, cl ls tk jgs FksA [kpk[kp HkhM+ esa txg feyuk eqf'dy FkhA ckcwth [kknh ds èkoy èkksrh&dqrkZ esa vkSj ijlkbZth dqrkZ&ik;tkek esaA ijlkbZth us cl LVs'ku eSustj ls dgk fd èkksrh dqrkZ okys lTtu egs'k nÙk feJ yksdlHkk lnL; gSa] eSa mudk lfpo gwaA fQj D;k FkkA lkeus dh lhV mUgsa rqjar ns nh xbZA jkLrs esa Mªkboj&daMDVj us vyx [kkfrj dhA

;g tkuuk fnypLi gS fd ns'k ds fdlh Hkh egkuxj esa ckcwth curs rd fdlh gksVy esa ugha Bgjrs FksA reke 'kgjksa esa muds fe= Fks vkSj mUgsa ckcwth dks vfrfFk cukus esa lq[k gh feyrk FkkA fnYyh esa ih,l 'ksêh] cacbZ esa dhfrZ—".k yfM;+k] dydÙkk esa jkefuokl <a<kfj;k vkSj eækl esa fd'kksjhyky vklsjk ds ?kj os Bgjrs FksA lcdh vyx&vyx #fp;ka o LoHkko] vyx&vyx i`"BHkwfe o dke FksA ysfdu ckcwth ftrus vkjke ls VkbEl v‚Q bafM;k ds 'ksêh pkpk ds lkFk jg ysrs Fks] mrus gh ets esa jkèkkoYyHk ladhrZu eaMyh ds laj{kd <a<kfj;kth ds ?kj Bgj tkrs FksA ckcwth ds bu nwjoklh fe=ksa ds ckjs esa ,d Lora= ys[k gh fy[kuk gksxkA njvly ;k=k ds nkSjku ckcwth lq[k&lqfoèkk dks ysdj dHkh Hkh vfrfjä fpark ugha djrs FksA iSj QSykus dks txg fey tk,] bruk gh muds fy, i;kZIr FkkA iyax&fcLrj gS rks Bhd] ojuk mldh Hkh t:jr ughaA Xokfy;j esa çxfr'khy ys[kd la?k ds egs'k dVkjs vkfn fe= ;g ns[kdj pfdr jg x, Fks fd Xokfy;j ds ikl fdlh xkao esa jkr dks lkfgfR;d dk;ZØe lekIr gksus ds ckn ckcwth ,d pcwrjs ij isM+ ds uhps njh fcNkdj gh lks x, Fks] tc mudh vk;q 70 o"kZ ds yxHkx FkhA

fgUnh Hkk"kk vkSj lkfgR; ds {ks= esa ckcwth dh lfØ;rk oèkkZ esa muds d‚yst ds fnuksa esa gh 'kq: gks xbZ FkhA mUgksaus oèkkZ fo|kFkÊ fgUnh lkfgR; ifj"kn uked laLFkk dk xBu fd;k Fkk ftldk ftØ ge ckn esa Hkh djsaxsA os tc ukxiqj vk, rks e-ç- fgUnh lkfgR; lEesyu rFkk çxfr'khy ys[kd la?k nksuksa ls os lfØ; :i ls tqM+sA çxfr'khy if=dk ^u;k iFk* ds laiknd leo;Ld jktho lDlsuk ls mudh fe=rk gks xbZ Fkh vkSj ukxiqj esa if=dk ds fy, xzkgd tqVkus dk dke mUgksaus bl nkSjku fd;kA lEesyu dh xfrfofèk;ksa esa Hkh os cjkcj fgLlk ysrs jgsA ukxiqj ml le; jktèkkuh FkhA ogka lkfgR;dkjksa dk vPNk [kklk te?kV Fkk vkSj bl eaMyh esa ,sls vusd fe= Fks ftUgksaus fgUnh txr esa eè;çns'k dks çfr"Bk fnykbZA

e-ç- fgUnh lkfgR; lEesyu ds lkFk mudh csgn lfØ; Hkwfedk dh 'kq:vkr u;k jkT; xfBr gksus o Hkksiky ds jktèkkuh cuus ls gksrh gSA u, çns'k esa LokHkkfod rkSj ij lEesyu dk iquxZBu fd;k tkuk FkkA 1957 esa ;g r; gqvk fd vxys o"kZ ,d çns'k&Lrjh; lEesyu ls u, vè;k; dh 'kq#vkr dh tk,A blds fy, ,d Lokxr lfefr cuhA iafMr dqathyky nqcs Lokxrkè;{k o ek;kjke lqjtu Lokxrea=h fuokZfpr gq,A çèkkuea=h iafMr tokgjyky usg: dks eq[; vfrfFk vkeaf=r djus dk fu.kZ; gqvkA viuh nSuafnu O;Lrrkvksa dks laHkkyrs gq, ckcwth lEesyu dks lQy cukus ds fy, lky Hkj rd yxs jgsA tSlk fd ,sls vk;kstuksa esa ges'kk gksrk gS èku jkf'k dk çcaèk djuk lcls igyk vkSj lcls egRoiw.kZ i{k ;gka Hkh FkkA blds ckn Lekfjdk ds fy, lkexzh vkSj foKkiu bdVBk djuk nwljk cM+k dke FkkA ;g lc dqN gksdj lEesyu dk ,sfrgkfld vfèkos'ku Hkksiky dh lnj eafty esa lEiUu gqvkA ;g ckcwth ds thou dk ,d xkSjoiw.kZ {k.k FkkA

blds ckn ckcwth yxkrkj lEesyu dh dk;Zdkfj.kh esa cus jgsA ,d le; mUgksaus çèkkuea=h dk nkf;Ro Hkh laHkkykA muds gh ekxZn'kZu esa 1972 esa jktukanxkao esa HkO; vfèkos'ku gqvkA ml le; gh yxHkx lokZuqefr cu xbZ fd vxys vfèkos'ku esa ek;kjke lqjtu lEesyu ds vè;{k gksaxsA ;|fi e-ç- fgUnh lkfgR; lEesyu çns'k dh lcls iqjkuh lkfgfR;d laLFkk Fkh ysfdu blds dkeksa esa dksbZ cgqr T;knk xfr ugha FkhA 1972 rd jkT; ljdkj ls ukeek= dks rhu gtkj #i, dk vuqnku feyrk Fkk rFkk vè;{k dk ?kj gh lEesyu dk dk;kZy; gksrk FkkA vfèkdrj lkfgR;dkj flQZ blfy, tqM+s Fks fd ,d pyh vk jgh ijaijk dk fuokZg djuk FkkA ;gka&ogka lEcèn laLFkk,a NqViqV dk;ZØe dj ysrh FkhaA ckcwth tc çèkkuea=h cus rc ,d egRoiw.kZ fu.kZ; fy;k x;k fd tcyiqj foÜofo|ky; dh ch, dh ijh{kk esa fgUnh esa lokZfèkd vad ikus okys fo|kFkÊ dks lqHkækdqekjh pkSgku Lo.kZind fn;k tk,xkA bls 1964 ls çkjaHk gksuk FkkA mèkj eè;Hkkjr o foaè;çns'k esa {ks=h; bdkbZ;ka py jgh Fkha tks yxHkx Lok;Ùk Fkha vkSj laHkor% lekukarj :i ls dke dj jgh FkhaA

;g lewpk ifj–'; 1976 esa iwjh rjg ls cny x;k FkkA lEesyu dk ekuks dk;kdYi gks x;kA 1976 dh ebZ esa fpyfpykrh xeÊ ds chp fofn'kk esa vfèkos'ku gqvkA ckcw txthoujke eq[; vfrfFk cu dj vk,A ifgyh ckj yxHkx lk<+s rhu lkS çfrfufèk;ksa us viuk iath;u djk;kA Bgjus dh txg de iM+ xbZ vkSj Hkkstu O;oLFkk HkhA LFkkuh; vk;kstu lfefr dks vuqeku ugha Fkk fd bruk cM+k vfèkos'ku gks tk,xkA rhu fnu rd oSpkfjd l=ksa esa èkqvkaèkkj ppkZ,a gqbZa vkSj jkr dks ikjaifjd dfo lEesyu dksbZ Ms<+ lkS dfo eap ij fojkteku gksus ds dfBu ç;Ru esa yxs gq, FksA ,sls viwoZ mRlkg dk okrkoj.k flQZ ,d rF; ds dkj.k cuk fd ckcwth vè;{k cu jgs Fks vkSj fgUnh çsfe;ksa rFkk ys[kdksa ds eu esa foÜokl Fkk fd vc dqN ubZ ckr cusxhA vkSj ;gh gqvkA

vè;{k cuus ds rqjar ckn ckcwth us cgqr rVLFk Hkko ls viuh dk;Zdkfj.kh dk xBu fd;kA mlesa ;qokvksa dks Hkjiwj LFkku feykA lEesyu ls lEcèn gksus okyh laLFkkvksa esa vHkwriwoZ o`f) gqbZA ckcwth us jkT; 'kklu ls lEesyu ds fy, dk;kZy; ds fy, txg ekaxhA ;Fkkle; lnj eafty ds lkeus 'kh'kegy esa dk;kZy; ds fy, ,d vPNk [kklk LFkku fey x;k] vkSj fofèkor dk;kZy; çkjaHk gks x;kA igyh ckj iw.kZdkfyd çcaèk ea=h dh fu;qfä gqbZA vyekfj;ka] VkbijkbVj vkfn [kjhns x,A VsyhQksu yxkA dk;kZy; lgk;d o Hk`R; vkfn Hkh fu;qä gq,A bl lcdh O;oLFkk ds fy, ckcwth us fujarj Hkkx nkSM+ dj leqfpr vuqnku jkf'k jkT; ljdkj ls Loh—r djkbZA rhu gtkj dh vuqnku jkf'k dkykarj esa rhu yk[k #i, okf"kZd rd igqap xbZA blds ckotwn ckcwth us lEesyu vFkok lkfgfR;d mís'; ds fy, dh xbZ ;k=kvksa esa dHkh ;k=k O;; ugha fy;kA bls mUgksaus ekr`Hkk"kk dk _.k 'kksèku djuk gh ekukA vius vè;{k dky esa ckcwth us lEesyu ds futh Hkou ds fy, Hkh nkSM+&èkwi dh rFkk HknHknk jksM ij varr% mUgksaus tks IykV vkjf{kr djk;k mlh ij mudh e`R;q ds nl lky ckn lEesyu ds fy, Hkou cukA

os 1974 ls 1996 rd viuh e`R;q rd lEesyu ds vè;{k jgsA bl chp mUgksaus tc Hkh ineqä gksus dh bPNk O;ä dh og lEesyu ds lkfFk;ksa }kjk gj ckj [kkfjt dj nh xbZA muds bl dk;Zdky dh lkaxBfud –f"V ls ,d tks cM+h miyfCèk jgh og Fkh lEesyu dks ,d lw= esa ckaèkukA e-ç- ds fofHkUu HkkSxksfyd ?kVdksa esa tks HkkokRed nwjh Fkh og lEesyu ds {ks=h; bdkbZ;ksa esa Hkh fn[krh FkhA vR;ar èkhjt ds lkFk mUgksaus lcdks tksM+us dk dke fd;kA muds dk;Zdky ds igys egkea=h dkseyflag lksyadh us bl eqfge esa [kwc lkFk fuHkk;kA 1976 esa vè;{k cuus ds pkj ekg ds Hkhrj gh muds ç;Ruksa ls lEesyu dk viuk çfrfufèk eaMy e‚jh'kl ls f}rh; foÜo fgUnh lEesyu esa f'kjdr djus Hkstk x;kA ckcwth us Lo;a tkus ds cnys eq>s Hkstk vkSj esjk ekxZ O;; lEesyu ds [kkrs esa ugha Mkyk x;kA

e-ç- fgUnh lkfgR; lEesyu dks lcls T;knk çfr"Bk feyh vius jpuk f'kfojksa ds dkj.kA viuh Vhe esa ftu ;qok ys[kdksa dks mUgksaus tksM+k Fkk mu ij iwjk foÜokl djrs gq, mUgha ij bu f'kfojksa ds vk;kstu dh ftEesnkjh Mkyh xbZA ,slk turkaf=d joS;k fgUnh dh fdlh Hkh vU; laLFkk esa ugha gksxkA ipe<+h esa dfork f'kfoj] vejdaVd esa dgkuh f'kfoj] f'koiqjh esa ukV; f'kfoj ,sls vusd vk;kstu gq, ftuesa çns'k dh mHkjrh çfrHkkvksa us cgqr mRlkg ds lkFk Hkkxhnkjh dhA vkt fgUnh dgkuh] dfork esa ipkl&ipiu ds vk;q oxZ esa ftu ys[kdksa ds uke lqus tkrs gSa muesa ls vusd ds O;fäRo dk fuekZ.k lEesyu ds bu f'kfojksa esa gh gqvkA